Mountain Town News
New plans for the wildlife Berlin Wall
VAIL PASS, Colo.—In the late 1990s, people concerned about wildlife mortality took to calling Interstate 70 the Berlin Wall for wildlife in Colorado. They had hard evidence for the name.
In 1999, lynx were reintroduced into Colorado, at locations in the San Juan Mountains. On a hot summer day just a few months later, one of them was squashed on I-70 near the summit of Vail Pass. It had wandered several hundred miles north, but it could not get across the freeway.
In 2004, a wolf had wandered south from Wyoming across the Red Desert and several mountain ranges. Once in Colorado it could not get across I-70. Its carcass was found near Idaho Springs. It was the first confirmed wolf in Colorado in decades.
Now come new efforts to continue to create both overpasses and underpasses on Vail Pass.
On the west side of Vail Pass, wildlife mitigation will be included in plans for building 10 miles of auxiliary lanes between Vail and the summit of the pass. John Kronholm, a design team manager for the Colorado Department of Transportation, says discussion with stakeholders have settled on two larger underpasses—for deer, elk, and moose—and several smaller underpasses, such as for lynx. The science behind what will work best continues to evolve, says Kronholm, but the underpasses range from simple corrugated metal arches to concrete boxes.
The environmental assessment will wrap up next spring, he said, but nothing will be final until both C-DOT and the Federal Highway Administration sign off on the plans. But funding is another matter. It’s behind several other even more expensive projects planned to increase the capacity of I-70 between Denver and Summit County.
East of the summit of Vail Pass, one overpass and two underpasses have been identified as necessary to provide landscape connectivity for a breeding population of lynx as well as other species. The structures, if built, would be on the west-bound lanes, as the east-bound lanes have several broad spans, essentially bridges, that allow wildlife to pass underneath.
Vail Pass has been identified as a high priority by Summit County Safe Passages, a coalition of local, state, and federal agencies, plus private companies and environmental and other advocacy organizations.
Julia Kintsch, a consulting conservation biologist, says preliminary engineering and cost estimates will likely begin before summer’s end. That work will be paid for with $190,000 in funding from Vail Resorts and Arapahoe Basin. The two ski area operators had been required to pay for wildlife mitigation projects relative to impacts caused by their terrain expansions, in the case of Vail Resorts for its expansion at Breckenridge.
As on the west side of Vail Pass, no money has been allocated for construction. However, Kintsch points to the partnerships with Summit County Safe Passages as foundational for future work. The diversity of government and non-government partners “can really accelerate these types of projects,” she says.
Highway 9 between Silverthorne and Kremmling provides an example of partnerships at work. The Colorado Department of Transportation wanted to straighten and widen a 10.5-mile segment of the highway between Kremmling and Green Mountain Reservoir. It’s a valley thick with sagebrush and large populations of mule deer and occasionally elk during winter.
Lingering memories of a 1985 accident were a motivation for the highway upgrade. A pickup driving on the two-lane highway swerved—to avoid hitting a deer, the driver said—and smacked head-on into the compact car carrying Gene and Mimi Ritschard. The couple, who lived on a ranch along the Colorado River, had been driving home from a water meeting. They died instantly.
Paul Jones, the wealthy owner of the Blue Valley Ranch, near where the tragedy occurred, donated $1 million to get the planning and fundraising going. The Colorado Department of Transportation itself said the money had to come from elsewhere. Jones donated another $4 million and other private citizens donated $2.1 million, Grand County gave $3.1 million, and other local governments—Kremmling, Silverthorne, and Summit County—added $360,000.
This produced 2 overpasses, 5 underpasses, tall fences to funnel the deer to the crossing structures, and other infrastructure.
Evidence has been accumulating of the success. In the five years before 2015, when the structures were mostly installed, roadside surveys revealed an average 56.4 carcasses per year. Since then, the surveys have yielded 6 carcasses per year.
With those and other statistics in store, Summit County Safe Passages approached the Summit County commissioners with a proposal. Safe Passages has identified two more crossings on Highway 9 in addition to the work on the east side of Vail Pass as high priorities. One overpass would be between Green Mountain Reservoir and Silverthorne, and the other between Breckenridge and Hoosier Pass. Both would benefit deer, elk, moose, and other large animals.
A call for more wildlife overpasses
BAYFIELD, Colo. – Colorado wildlife officials expect a widening of U. S. Highway 160 between Pagosa Springs and Durango to include features to help keep hooves away from hoods.
The project near Chimney Rock National Monument will include two wildlife crossing structures, one of which may be an overpass, with the other sure to be an underpass. New fencing will be designed to influence animals to move to the overpass, according to the Colorado Department of Transportation. Construction is to begin in 2020.
The Southern Ute Tribe has committed to spending $1 million, Colorado Parks and Wildlife $75,000, and the National Wildlife Foundation $317,000 to supplement funding by C-DOT.
The highway splits summer big-game range and the Weminuche wilderness to the north and excellent winter range—mainly on the Southern Ute lands—to the south.
This will supplement another underpass of U. S. 160 farther west, between Durango and Bayfield. In the 10 years prior to its completion in 2016, C-DOT documented 472 vehicle-wildlife collisions, mostly involving mule deer. Many collisions go unreported.
Mark Lawler, a biologist with the Colorado Department of Transportation, said that research throughout the world shows clearly that underpasses and overpasses dramatically lead to a decline in collisions.
“At the new underpass we’re seeing a large number of mule deer going through the structure daily,” Lawler said. “Animals are using the structure; we’re not just moving the problem.”
Evidence of a lone gray wolf in Colorado
WALDEN, Colo. – Coloradans visiting Wyoming is not news. They’re called “greenies” in Wyoming, because of Colorado’s white-and-green license plates.
But one particular tourist from Wyoming to Colorado has attracted plenty of attention. Colorado Parks & Wildlife announced last week that a male gray wolf recently sighted in Colorado’s North Park had come from the Snake River pack. The pack normally dens just inside Yellowstone National Park. In February, the Wyoming Game and Fish’s telemetry instrumentation last recorded this particular wolf being near South Pass, at the southern tip of the Wind River Range.
It’s not the first dispersing male wolf from Wyoming since reintroduction of the species in the Yellowstone area in the 1990s. The first known wolf arrived in Colorado in 2004, and there have been several since.
But unless these lone male wolves bring dates, wildlife biologists say, there’s no real chance for a permanent population in Colorado. Colorado’s wildlife commission two years ago heard again a proposal to reintroduce wolves, but, as before, said—no, not now.
Taking a virtual-reality coal mine tour
CANMORE, Alberta — The preserve that became Banff National Park was created by the Canadian government in 1885. The next year, the first coal mine opened at Canmore, which today lies at the eastern entrance to the national park and is, in its own right, a thriving tourism town with a large component of vacation and weekend homes.
The last coal mine closed in 1979, but a new exhibit at the Mine at the Canmore Museum and Geoscience Centre seeks to give visitors a sense of what it was like to be in those coal mines. Jerry Auld, the animator, talked with former miners, most of whom had not been inside a coal mine since 1979, to get the details just right, or as close as possible for a virtual reality tour of what being inside the mine would have been like in the 1930s.